Highwaymen Resources


Highwaymen Highlights

  • 26 Black Teenage Artists
  • 1950s and 1960s
  • Largely Self-Taught
  • Fort Pierce & Vero Beach
  • Paint or Pick Oranges
  • Segregated South
  • No Access to Galleries
  • Sold Door-to-Door
  • Speed Painting
  • Upson Board & Crown Molding
  • Named in 1994
  • Listed in 2001
  • Honored in 2004
  • 15 Deceased
  • Many Still Painting


The Florida Artists Hall of Fame Inductees

  • A.E. Backus (Mentor)
  • Curtis Arnett
  • Hezekiah Baker
  • Al ("Blood") Black
  • Ellis Buckner
  • George Buckner
  • Robert Butler
  • Mary Ann Carroll
  • Johnny ("Hook") Daniels
  • Willie Daniels
  • Rodney Demps
  • James Gibson
  • Alfred Hair
  • Isaac Knight
  • Robert L. Lewis, Jr.
  • John Maynor
  • Roy McLendon
  • Alfonso ("Poncho") Moran
  • Harold Newton
  • Lemuel Newton
  • Sam Newton
  • Willie Reagan
  • Livingston ("Castro") Roberts
  • Carnell ("Pete") Smith
  • Charles Walker
  • Sylvester M. Wells
  • Charles ("Chico") Wheeler




A.E. ("Bean") Backus

  • "Dean" of home-grown Florida landscape artists
  • Florida Artists Hall of Fame member
  • Mentor to many Highwaymen artists


Zanobia Bracy Jefferson

  • Sculptor and painter
  • Lincoln Park Academy art instructor
  • Referred student Alfred Hair to Bean Backus


Jim Fitch

  • Art collector, gallery owner, art historian, curator
  • Coined the term "Highwaymen"


Gary Monroe

  • Documentary photographer
  • Daytona State College professor (Ret.)
  • Author "The Highwaymen" (2001)



Highwaymen "Templates"


Royal Poinciana

Charles ("Chico") Wheeler


Ocean Shore

Hezekiah Baker


Breaking Waves

Mary Ann Carroll


Fire Skies

R.L. McLendon


Indian River

Willie Daniels


St. Lucie & Inland Rivers

Sylvester M. Wells



Sam Newton



Backcountry Pines

James Gibson


River of Grass

Robert Butler



Harold Newton


Stormy Weather

Alfred Hair



Moonlight on the Water

Willie Daniels


Orange Groves

A.E. Backus



Robert Butler





Monroe, Gary. The Highwaymen: Florida's African-American Landscape Painters.

Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001.


Monroe, Gary. Postcards from the Highwaymen. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2012.


Monroe, Gary. The Highwaymen Murals: Al Black’s Concrete Dreams. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009.


Monroe, Gary. Mary Ann Carroll: First Lady of the Highwaymen.

Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2014.


Monroe, Gary. Harold Newton: The Original Highwayman. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2007.


Enns, Catherine M. The Journey of the Highwaymen. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2009.


Beatty, Bob. Florida’s Highwaymen Legendary Landscapes. Orlando: Historical Society of Central Florida, 2005.


Kuzmanovic, Natasha. Tropical Light: The Art of A. E. Backus. New York: Vendome Press, 2016.


Lewis, Robert III and Lewis, Robert, Jr. A Journey Through the Eyes of An Original Highwayman Artist R.L. Lewis, Jr. Orlando: DOMINIONHOUSE Publishing & Design, 2015.


Butler, Robert and Munoz, Dr. Sheila R. Highwaymen Artists: An Untold Truth. Scotts Valley: CreateSpace, 2014.


Butler, Robert with Munoz, Dr. Sheila R. Timeless Echoes: The Life and Art of Robert Butler. Scotts Valley: CreateSpace, 2014.


Butler, Robert with Munoz, Dr. Sheila R. The Cracker Cowman: The Heritage of Florida Ranches as Depicted by Artist Robert Butler. Scotts Valley: CreateSpace, 2014.



Websites, Musuems, Shops & Galleries


Florida Highway Paintings



Florida Highwaymen: From the Roadside to the National Collection



The Highwaymen Artists






The Highwaymen: Speed Painting in the Sunshine State



The Highwaymen Trail



Authentic Florida: Celebrating Florida’s Highwaymen, Historic Outsider Artists



Highwaymen Art Gallery, New Smyrna Beach, FL



Highwaymen Art Specialists, Vero Beach, FL



Grant Antique Mall, Grant, FL



Legendary Highwaymen Gallery, Vero Beach, FL



Highwaymen Art Auctions



A.E. Backus Museum & Gallery



Timeless Treasures, Arcadia, FL



Corey’s Antiques, Arcadia, FL



Rum Runners Antiques, Nokomis, FL



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 Gary Felfoldy


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"In the Style of the

Florida Highwaymen"


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Exhibition and Sale:

June 26 - July 24


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661 Artists



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